Procedural Facade Variations from a Single Layout

  • Fan BaoArizona State University
  • Michael SchwarzArizona State University
    Cornell University
  • Peter WonkaArizona State University
ACM Transactions on Graphics
Starting from an input facade image (left, top), we semi-automatically create a hierarchical segmentation (left, bottom) and model the essential aspects of the layout by specifying important constraints in a user interface. Our relayouting algorithm can then automatically generate many layout variations (right).


We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input's structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality.


Bao, F., Schwarz, M., Wonka, P. 2013. Procedural facade variations from a single layout. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 32, 1, Article 8
    author  = {Fan Bao and Michael Schwarz and Peter Wonka},
    title   = {Procedural Facade Variations from a Single Layout},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
    volume  = {32},
    number  = {1},
    year    = {2013},
    month   = jan,
    pages   = {8:1-8:13}